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Temperature Ranges and Colors

In the kiln


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Heatwork Chart: Transformation of Ceramic Materials by Heat

Kiln Color

Cone

°F

°C

Description

white

14

2552°

1400°

Porcelain: cone 10-13

yellow

10

2380°

1300°

High-fire/Stoneware: cone 8-10, average=cone10

 

6

2192°

1200°

Mid-range glaze: cone 2-7

 

04

1950°

1100°

Low-fire/Earthenware:
cone 015-1, average=cone 04

yellow- orange

 

 

1000°

 

 

010

1650°

900°

Clay particles beginning to vitrify; the lowest BISQUE temperature (cone 010-04)

 

 

1450°

800°

Vitrification begins, carbonaceous material is burned off.

red

018

1292°

700°

RED HEAT

dull red

 

 

600°

 

 

 

1060°

500°

573° C, quartz inversion in both heating and cooling stages.

 

 

 

400°

From 480-700° C, chemical water
(water smoking) occurs.

 

 

 

300°

From 300-800° C, carbonaceous material burns off.

 

439°

200°

220° C, cristobalite expansion (heating), squeeze (cooling)

dark

 

212°

100°

Water converts to steam (expands).


Temperature Ranges


Low-fire / Earthenware

  • Average is Cone 04 (1950° F / 1100° C)
  • Ranges from Cone 015 - 1 (up to 2109° F / 1154° C)
  • a relatively soft, porous clay body, and a clearly separate glaze layer.
  • Glaze colors are generally more varied and bright than stoneware.

Mid-range

  • Ranges from Cone 2 - 7 (2124-2264° F / 1162-1240° C)
  • a relatively soft, porous clay body, and a clearly separate glaze layer.
  • Glaze colors are generally more varied and brighter than stoneware.
  • A common temperature range for industrial ceramics.

High-fire / Stoneware

  • Average is Cone 10 (2381° F / 1305° C)
  • Cone 8 -12 range (2305-22419° F / 1263-1326° C)
  • a hard, vitrified, non-absorbent clay body
  • a body-glaze layer that forms between the clay body and glaze.

Very High-fire / Porcelain

  • Cone 10 -13 range (2381-2455° F / 1305-1346° C)
  • a hard, vitrified, non-absorbent clay body
  • a body-glaze layer that forms between the clay body and glaze


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